Archive for August, 2017

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5 Ways to Help Traffic

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Source: CNN

In the midst of Tropical Storm Harvey, our hearts and thoughts go out to the families whom are affected by this storm. Due to its flat topography, Houston is well-known for its susceptibility for flooding. Many people woke up to find they were trapped inside their flooded homes and waited to be rescued. We wish the affected families the best of luck in their journey to recovery.
 
I have never been to Houston, but I have heard many stories about Houston’s traffic and planning. In this blog, I will share what I have learned from my perspective and my extended knowledge of transportation.
 
Houston is known for its sprawl. People tend to complain about the traffic because they drive to most of their destinations. The traffic is usually at a standstill.
 
Here is a video talking about the Houston’s freeway system.
 


 
American Highway Users Alliance published a statement that the Katy freeway in Houston was the second most congested road in America. Drivers spend a combined 25.4 million hours every year sitting in traffic on that road (which is 36 lifetimes worth). That is why the government decided to spend $2.8 billion to expand the road to 28 lanes, making it the widest highway in the world. Many people thought that this extra capacity would surely solve the problem. However, between 2011 and 2014, travel time on Katy freeway went up 55% (Meaning that driving between downtown Houston and Katyland, a 28-minute drive without traffic, takes an average of 64 mins during afternoon rush hour.)

Katy freeway (I-10) in Houston, Tx

Sounds unbelievable, right?

The video explains that the road expanding solution violated the fundamental law of roads: MORE LANES=MORE TRAFFIC. When the road got extended, more people used it, causing it to reach capacity again.

Here are some solutions for traffic as discussed in the video:
 

  1. Take public transit

This is always the long-term way to solve traffic. Taking the bus and light rail can definitely reduce the daily amount of traffic and is also environmentally friendly.

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Source: http://www.abrahamwatkins.com/blog/images/METRO_Light_Rail3.jpg

  1. Ramp meters

Meters on entrance and exit ramps can control the amount flow of traffic entering the highway. It slows down the number of cars merging onto the highway, ensuring traffic stays at its most efficient speed.

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Source: https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop14020/sec1.htm

  1. Tolls

Tolls are a direct way to reduce traffic. In New York, which has high roadway tolls, people often prefer to take the train or subway into Manhattan instead of driving.

These fees can increase the overall cost of driving to a level where some people will decide the benefits of driving are not high enough and will choose alternative means of transportation.2005-03-13_15-53-32

  1. Roundabouts

Roundabouts decrease some of the worst type of collisions and still carry the same amount of traffic, according to study. Traffic tends to be smooth and consistent, albeit having a slower flow.

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     Source: https://i.ytimg.com/vi/XcK8sjzTlWI/maxresdefault.jpg

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Source: https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Safety/roundabouts/benefits.htm

  1. Diverging diamond interchange (DDI), also called double crossover diamond interchange (DCD)
  • Fewer conflict points (14 for DDI, 26 for conventional)
  • Conflict points spread out throughout interchange
  • Better sight distance at turns
  • Virtually no driver confusion (FHWA study and new DDI observations in Springfield, MO)
  • Traffic calming features when desired
  • Wrong way entry to ramps extremely difficult
  • Shorter pedestrian crossings

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Source: http://www.divergingdiamond.com/trafficmovements.html

In the DC metro area, commuters also face heavy traffic during the rush hours, especially in downtown DC, I-66, I-495, and I-395. After all, traffic is an issue for every major metropolitan area. We all contribute to solve this problem. I highly recommend everyone to take public transit like Metrorail, Metrobus, or the Capital Bikeshare.

 

Mei Fang, is an urban planner with a strong passion in urban and landscape design, she also enjoy looking for the variety culture inside of the city.

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The Future of Transportation – Part I

As an alumnus and a member of the Advisory Council for the Civil Engineering Department, I was asked to lead a workshop during the summer CATALYST Academy at Cornell University. The purpose of the summer program was to bring high school students from underrepresented backgrounds to Cornell to spark an interest in engineering and the university. My workshop entitled “Transportation: How you can be part of the Future” included a 30-minute presentation and a 60-minute group activity. This blog post is a summary of the presentation portion of my workshop.

Transportation has always been about moving goods and/or people from Point A to Point B. Whether we are discussing the ancient empires with routes to trade goods, the slave trade that brought Africans to the Americas, or the latest flight deals that allow for global travel, transportation is an essential part of the economy. Today, the transportation industry is at an interesting crossroads of ‘we’ve been doing it this way for decades’ and ‘new technologies require new thinking’.

“We’ve Been Doing it this Way for Decades”

For the last six decades, the basic formula for transportation planning has changed very little. We examine existing conditions, forecast changes over a 20 to 30-year period, and then predict how people will move and what mode they will use. While this model gives us a general idea of movement at the regional level, it can be problematic when used at other scales.

Among the challenges with the current model, I discussed two with the students. One challenge of the model is that it assumes people use one mode to take a trip between point A and point B. Where in reality people, particularly in highly urbanized areas, use multiple modes. For example, if a person takes public transportation, they still have walk trips from home to the bus stop and the bus stop to work. The other challenge is emerging megaregions, where people are able to commute between regions on a daily basis. For example, there are people who commute to DC daily from Philadelphia, which is part of a different metropolitan area. However, the travel models are still regional in that DC and and Philadelphia have separate travel demand models.

‘New Technologies’

With the advancement of technologies, the transportation industry is facing new challenges and opportunities. I discussed:

  • Changes in Communication: With the popularity of smart phones and tablets, people are able to have face-to-face communication with the click of an application. Where long distance relationships required a plane ticket or long-distance phone plan 10 years ago, now we are able to communicate globally via Wireless internet.
  • Shared Economy: For the transportation industry, the shared economy includes sharing a motor vehicle, bicycle, or car ride. Programs like Car2Go, ZipCar, and Getaround allow for people to forego car ownership but still have access to a car when they need one. Bikeshare programs are a gateway to increasing the number of people biking as well as fill a short to medium transportation need. Rideshare programs such as Uber and Lyft provide access to people who do now own a vehicle and have been shown to increase transit usage.
  • Autonomous Vehicles (AVs): When I was young, I was told we would live like The Jetsons by the time I was an adult. I also remember watching Maximum Overdrive and being freaked out at the thought of a semi-truck chasing people around. There has been (and still is) skepticism around AVs. However, fully autonomous passenger and freight vehicles are being tested on our roadways. There are still public policy questions around safety, cyber security, and infrastructure needs.
  • Delivery Bots: I showed the students a video of a delivery bot in DC. The technology is being deployed in communities as both airborne drones and little motorized food delivery vehicles. If and when this technology scales up, what will be the future impact on how people and goods travel?
  • MagLev: I shared with the students that there are ongoing discussion of using MagLev trains as an alternative mode of travel between cities. For example, the Baltimore-Washington Rapid Rail is examining a maglev train that would travel from Baltimore to Washington DC in 15 minutes.
  • Space: There are some big thinkers, such as Richard Branson, that envision a world with commercial space travel.

‘New Thinking’

With the emergence of new technologies, humanity will face unique challenges and the current generation of teenagers are equipped to provide the solutions to those challenges. Some of the things I shared with the students:

  • They are the first generation where access to technology and high-speed (and pocket sized) computers are the norm. I told them they do not understand the struggles of having to use a pencil to rewind a cassette tape. The first Apple iPod was release when many of them were born. The do not know a world without technology.
  • They are growing up in an inclusive society. Although the U.S. still has its share of –isms (racism, classism, sexism, etc), this group has grown up in a world that has been more socially inclusive than any other in U.S. history.
  • They have access to instantaneous and unlimited information. When I was in high school, research required flipping through the pages of an encyclopedia Britannica or going through card catalogue to find a book. The current generation has the ability to pull information on any topic at any moment. With the click of a button, Siri can answer question on music, history, biology, physics, etc.

The purpose of the presentation was to get the young people thinking about the current challenges and opportunities in transportation. After a brief question and answer, I broke the students into teams and assigned them an activity to address many of the issues I discussed in my presentation. In the next post, I will describe the group activity in detail and the ideas generated by the students.

Veronica O. Davis, PE is a transportation guru who uses her knowledge to spark progressive social change. As Co-owner and Principal of Nspiregreen, she is also responsible for the management of the major urban planning functions such as transportation planning, policy development, master planning, sustainability analysis, and long range planning. In July 2012, Veronica was recognized as a Champion of Change by the White House for her professional accomplishments and community advocacy, which includes co-founding Black Women Bike.

13th Street NW at Franklin Park, showing people waiting for food trucks in the shade of the trees.

Food Truck Fiasco

 

I love a food truck. I think it’s also fair to say that the DC region as a whole loves its food trucks. It’s like street food, but more trustworthy because it comes from a branded, often punny, metal box truck. With popularity of food trucks and fight for curbside uses (e.g parking) in prime locations, many jurisdictions have created special regulations and programs to manage how food trucks use the curbside parking. But as I was joining my fellow Nspiregreeners to flock to the DC Empanada truck (best empanadas in the District, btw) at Franklin Park, I noticed a few externalities of how these food trucks operate.

  1. Compacted Soils– This is my biggest concern. Food trucks often set up shop along a Franklin Park as shown in the photo below. People wait on the grass in the shaded areas that are within earshot of the trucks. In addition, people take short cuts through the grass to get to their favorite truck. With all of this foot traffic, the soils in this park near the food trucks is compacted. When soil gets to this extent of compaction, the shallow roots of grasses become starved for growing space, nutrients, and water and begin to die off. The scuffing of feet on the compacted soil loosens the top layers and soil sediment then blows in the wind or is washed into stormwater runoff. During rain, the rest of the compacted soil acts almost similar to impervious surfaces, where runoff can sheet across without being absorbed. If the storm is long enough and it is absorbed, the area becomes a mud pit and a potential tripping hazard when it dries again. 

13th Street NW looking north from Franklin Park. Photo shows People in business attire waiting for food from food trucks. The soil under their feet in the park is compacted and grass is not growing at the edge of the park.

Solution: Temporary waiting areas, with lighter touch on the ground or those that aerate the soil while people use them. These can be formalized waiting areas sectioned off by using ropes or guideposts.

  1. Crowded sidewalks or inadequate public space– Many times when trucks set up along streets there is inadequate sidewalk or public space to accommodate the lines of people and crowds waiting for their food. People that need to use the sidewalk to pass either must cross or zigzag their way through the crowds and lines. This impedes pedestrian flow and accessibility.

Solution: Again, temporary waiting areas sectioned off by using ropes or guideposts can help guide people to wait in designated areas and leave the sidewalks clearer.

  1. Noise pollution – Some food trucks run nice and quiet, but others with on-board generators sound like a continuous jack hammer that resonates across blocks. Even the crowds of people, at peak times, can produce noise pollution in otherwise low volume areas. These areas can then run up against opposition because they become a nuisance to residents and other businesses.

Solution: The potential solution to this could be one of two things- require trucks to operate below a certain decibel reading and/or provide temporary noise screening walls or vegetation against the trucks.

  1. Lack of Shade – Unless it’s the first warm day after a stretch of winter weather, most people want to stand in the shade when waiting for their food. The trucks themselves only shade the person ordering outside. If the trucks are popular, the lines can stretch into public space or down a sidewalk.

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Solution: The solution could be pretty easy- temporary umbrellas or shade structures or enhance the environment. If umbrellas or shade structures, they could be branded for the BID, neighborhood, or supplied by the truck itself. Increasing tree canopies would help offset any air quality issues and improve stormwater quality if designed to capture runoff.

  1. Lack of Seating – In many cases, the public spaces do not have adequate seating to accommodate those that wish to stay outside with coworkers or friends on nice days instead of heading indoors for a SDL (sad desk lunch). Often times seating is limited or unavailable in these cases, forcing customers to sit on the grass (not ideal) or go back to the office and fall prey to the better tasting SDL.

Solution: The solution is pretty obvious, temporary seating, but these could be done as more exciting installations of placemaking and usable art. The Seattle Design Festival hosts a design in public events that encourage people to interact with art and installations.

Seattle Design Festival Block Party 2016

Photo Credit: Trevor Dykstra

As with any project or impact to our transportation system or land use, thoughtful planning can avoid the impacts on the environment and public space. With a little art added into the mix the result can be a unique and attractive space that draws people and encourages sustained activity.

 

Christine E. Mayeur, AICP is an urban planner with a unique set of skills and hobbies, interested in all things creative and challenging. Christine uses her history of working with communities through grassroots organizations along with her planning skills to help plan transportation systems and environmental solutions that meet the needs of all users.





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