Katy freeway (I-10) in Houston, Tx

Discussion of Telework Continues

Last week, I discussed the April 11th Kojo Nnambi Show from WAMU, where he explored telework and further delved into some of the issues pertinent to telework. How important is telework, not only to the federal workforce, but to local and state agencies as well as the private sector?

According to a study conducted by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), 68 percent of the employees who telework have indicated they would stay with their job versus 62 percent of those who do not telework. Employees in the federal work-force are getting older, so having someone who wants to stick with their job in the long-term is a benefit in itself.

The first question employers will ask is, “does telework make a work force more productive?” Research from the Global Workplace Analytics indicate the following

  • Over two-thirds of employers report of increased productivity among their telecommuters.
  • Best Buy, British Telecom, Dow Chemical, and many others show that teleworkers are 35-40 percent more productive.
  • Businesses lose $600 billion a year in workplace distractions.
  • AT&T workers work five more hours at home than their office workers.
  • JD Edwards teleworkers are 20-25 percent more productive than their office counterparts.
  • American Express workers produced 43 percent more than their office-based counterparts.
  • Compaq increased productivity 15-45 percent.

I am especially interested in whether telework will reduce employee attrition and how traffic congestion plays a role in an employees’ considering another job. Research showed the following results:

  • Losing a valued employee can cost an employer $10,000 to $30,000.
  • 46 percent of companies that allow telework say it has reduced attrition.
  • 14 percent of Americans have changed jobs to shorten the commute.
  • Almost half of employees feel their commute is getting worse; 70 percent of them feel their employers should take the lead in helping them solve the problem.
  • 92 percent of employees are concerned with the high cost of fuel and 80 percent of them specifically cite the cost of commuting to work.
  • 73 percent feel their employers should take the lead in helping them reduce their commuting costs.
  • Two-thirds of employees would take another job to ease the commute.

Other benefits sited through the Analytic research included:

  • Improves employee satisfaction – Two-thirds of people want to work from home.
  • Reduces unscheduled absences – Organizations that implemented a telework program, realized a 63 percent reduction in unscheduled absences.
  • Saves employers money – Nearly six out of ten employers identify cost savings as a significant benefit to telecommuting.
  • Increases collaboration – Once the technologies are in place
  • Equalizes personalities and reduces potential for discrimination
  • Cuts down on wasted meetings – Web-based meetings are better-planned and more apt to stay on message.

The one thing from Kojo’s Show that really hit me was the revelation that if you have bad telework experiences, it is generally an example of bad management. It is a sign of not really thinking out the complexities of the modern work force and how to fairly treat all employees, whether they telecommute or not. If there are problems with telecommuting, there are probably problems with the overall workplace.

Working-from-homeWe know that some jobs just are not appropriate for telework. More collaborative and problem solving can best be achieved with all employees at one location for proper discussion and dialogue. But that is why we have conference calling and webinar capabilities that allow people to share computer screens.  Again, a clear telework policy is necessary. It’s not easy, but nothing worth achieving, is ever easy.

It is important to encourage telework where appropriate, for that matter all Transportation Demand Management (TDM) options, to reduce solo driving. TDM options include carpooling, vanpooling, Guaranteed Ride Home, employer shuttles, flex workdays/ workweeks, etc. Financial incentives are very important to encourage potential employers to incorporate TDM (including telework) into their regular business operations. There are many such program that are available, and it is always easier to use a carrot rather than a stick to initiate a positive action. More information on telework and financial incentives, in this region and across the country, is available below.

  1. !VA
  2. Telework.gov
  3. Telework: Maryland and Virginia
  4. Tax Benefits Gives Added Incentives to Telecommuting
  5. San Diego Association of Governments
  6. Commuter Connections Flextime Rewards
  7. Georgia – Commutesmart

Please provide your thoughts in the comment section whether telework has been successful, or not, in your company or agency. Yes, we want to hear from you!

James Davenport is a TDM Employer Outreach Specialist, on contract with the Virginia Department of Transportation. Before that, James worked for Prince William County/Department of Transportation as a Regional Planner. In that capacity, he represented the county in regional forums and worked with planners and staff from other localities and transit agencies to help the region plan for its transportation future. For many years, James worked with the National Association of County as a project manager providing education and outreach to county officials, staff and key stakeholder groups on planning issues such as transportation, water quality, collaborative land use and economic development.

public housing

What’s on the Inside Counts Too!

Environmental Justice issues are not limited to pollution outside. 

In the world of environmental justice (EJ), there are many articles and discussions around the impacts from pollution that occur outdoors – industrial pollution, contaminated water bodies, mobile emissions, and other air quality impacts; however, many low income, minority communities often suffer from residential exposure to harmful contaminants that either occur indoors or infiltrate from outdoors. Let’s examine a few articles that have covered this topic.

In Moving Environmental Justice Indoors: Understanding Structural Influences on Residential Exposure Patterns in Low-Income Communities, which was published in the American Journal of Public Health in 2011, the authors explore disparities in indoor residential environmental quality. Below are some pertinent observations/ conclusions based on their research:

  • People in low income communities are more likely to live closer to mobile and stationary sources of pollution which increases the chance of outdoor pollution infiltrating indoors
    • Low income homes are often older and not as structurally sound (having holes). This may lead to increased infiltration from outdoors.
  • Homes within low income communities are more likely to have peeling paint which is a predictor of lead exposure in older homes; water leaks which are a predictor of mold and moisture development; and structural issues that serve as entry points for cockroaches and other pests
  • Communities with low socioeconomic status are more likely to experience second hand smoke particularly people who live within older multifamily buildings because the air infiltrates from unit to unit
  • One study has shown that lead concentrations in household dust, associations were found with income, race/ethnicity, floor surface or condition, and year of construction
  • Residential infestation of pests is linked to low socioeconomic status
  • Residential exposure to pesticides is more prominent in low income communities due to infestation

This research study explores several angles of exposure to indoor environmental justice issues each can be explored further as stand-alone research to further validate the connections between low socioeconomic status and EJ.

 

The Boston Globe published in article in April 2016 reporting Low Income, minority areas seen as lead poisoning hot spots. While this article is focused on Massachusetts this may be reflective of issues within your community as well. Here are a few findings as revealed within this article:

  • Cases where children have harmful levels of lead in their blood are predominantly in low income and minority communities
  • Boston has a citywide rate of lead poisoning at 2.8% but pockets within Dorchester (an overwhelmingly African American neighborhood) have rates over 6%
  • The article quotes Robert Knorr, the Director of Environmental Epidemiology at the Massachusetts Department of Public Health’s Bureau of Health as stating “Being poor and being a minority not only increases the risk of blood lead poisoning but makes it difficult to find a safe home”
  • Massachusetts has the second oldest housing stock in the country. Children living in these homes are primarily low income and minorities.

This news article in the Boston Globe is hyper focused on Massachusetts; however, it further validates the impact of indoor environmental issues concentrated in marginalized communities.

In an article entitled Homes of low-income minority families with asthmatic children have increased condition issues published in the Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, the correlation between home maintenance issues in low income minority communities and the prevalence of asthma in children is explored. Below are some discussion points and findings from the article:

  • Reviewing the occurrences of asthma in urban and rural communities shows that there is a socioeconomic difference that affects access to and quality of health care
  • Housing that is subpar and indoor environmental exposures have been correlated with increased indoor allergen exposure and sensitization and greater asthma diseases and death for low-income, minority children living in urban areas
  • This subpar housing usually has cracks that allow pests such as bugs and rodents to enter the home such as cockroaches, which can trigger asthma and allergies
  • Poor ventilation allows for high concentrations of allergens, tobacco smoke, CO2, radon and VOCs
  • In this study, homes of Latino children had the highest number of maintenance concerns followed by homes of black children and then homes of non-Latino white children
  • The study concluded that asthmatic children from low income black and Latino families had more areas of home and safety and maintenance concerns than non-Latino whites recruited from the same region
  • This article purports that improving living conditions in cities offers great promise for reducing health disparities and improving the quality of life and well being of children

This article focuses specifically on asthma but does point out that both children and adults who live in substandard housing face a host of health issues but lack adequate access to health care. Children living in inadequate housing are particularly vulnerable to asthma because of the identified maintenance concerns. The study focused on a small concentration of homes so it would be great to see this broadened across the United States.

Unfortunately, low income and minority communities face health risks linked to outdoor environmental justice issues but this is compounded by the fact that they often live in substandard housing which puts them at risk inside their home. Advocacy to eradicate environmental inequities must go beyond fighting industrial sources of pollution to advocating for adequate housing that is properly maintained for all.

Chanceé Lundy Russell is the Co-Founder of Nspiregreen LLC an environmental consulting, urban planning and public engagement firm based in Washington, DC. The Selma, Alabama native received her BS in Environmental Science from Alabama A&M University and her MS in Civil Engineering from Florida State University. She is passionate about environmental justice issues and works to create healthy, livable communities for all.

References:

Adamkiewicz, G., Zota, A. R., Fabian, M. P., Chahine, T., Julien, R., Spengler, J. D., & Levy, J. I. (2011). Moving Environmental Justice Indoors: Understanding Structural Influences on Residential Exposure Patterns in Low-Income Communities. American Journal of Public Health101(Suppl 1), S238–S245. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300119

Pacheco, C. M., Ciaccio, C. E., Nazir, N., Daley, C. M., DiDonna, A., Choi, W. S., … Rosenwasser, L. J. (2014). Homes of low-income minority families with asthmatic children have increased condition issues. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings35(6), 467–474. http://doi.org/10.2500/aap.2014.35.3792

Rocheleau, Matt. “Low-income, Minority Areas Seen as Lead Poisoning Hot Spots.” The Boston Globe. N.p., 11 Apr. 2016. Web. 23 May 2017.

 

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Waste and Race Matter: Current Issues In Environmental Justice

As residents of the wealthiest country on the planet, having clean air, water, access to food and living free of harmful toxins shouldn’t be a privilege, it should be a right. Unfortunately, communities of color continue to bear the burden of environmental racism and neglect. Like our last post on How Transportation Shaped Black Communities, I am listing articles that feature communities suffering at the hands of environmental injustice. While administrations and policies change, it is important to remember that there are humans caught in the cross hairs of politics and willful neglect. It is up to each of us to share their stories, advocate with them, and work to combat environmental racism.

These select articles do not do justice to an issue that pervades marginalized communities; however, they do provide some context to issues that too many communities face.  Unfortunately, race matters when it comes to waste. We must advocate for regulations, more stringent policies, enforcement and cleaner technologies until environmental racism is eradicated.

Chanceé Lundy Russell is the Co-Founder of Nspiregreen LLC an environmental consulting, urban planning and public engagement firm based in Washington, DC. The Selma, Alabama native received her BS in Environmental Science from Alabama A&M University and her MS in Civil Engineering from Florida State University. She is passionate about environmental justice issues and works to create healthy, livable communities for all.

 





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