Japanese hotel

The Culture That Influenced Cities Townscape

In the book, The Aesthetic Townscape, by Japanese architect Yoshinobu Ashihara, the writer expresses the cross-culture perspective in urban design and urban spaces. Based on his experiences in Japan, North America, and Europe, he provides a very unique insight. This blog post will summarize some of his discoveries.

Home Layout

In his book, Ashihara suggests that if Western European buildings are “wall buildings”, then Japanese buildings would be “floor buildings”. Although open-floor concepts are becoming more popular, most European-style homes are often separated by into distinct, fixed rooms.  Combining rooms is a major home improvement project requiring tearing down walls.  the Japanese do not have a strong concept of walls. The Japanese, on the other hand, tend to separate rooms with bamboo curtains, wood sliding doors, or a picture screen. As a result, it is easy to combine or split space, depending on what is needed for that moment.

Japanese hotel

Typical Japanese Living Room

https://www.spinjapan.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/10-Useful-Japanese-Expressions-to-Book-a-Hotel-in-Japan-e1453888074426.jpg

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A common walled living room

https://i.pinimg.com/originals/21/63/b1/2163b1bedb6272016a419404f90bc22d.jpg

Inside vs. Outside

In traditional Japanese families, people tend to take off their shoes before coming into the house. This habit is shaped by Japanese culture, which strongly separates “inside” (formal) from “outside” (informal). Shoes should only be worn “outside” and once you’re “inside”, they should always be removed. Home is a place where one should feel comfortable and relaxed, and should therefore be distinguished from the harshness of being outside in a public space. On the other hand, in Europe, people often leave their shoes on when coming into their home. Those who practice this don’t view it as bringing the outside in with them and do this out of convenience.

The Japanese even take their shoes off from the moment they walk in the hotel. They can wear their robes to walk around or just with socks. Basically, wearing a tie or shoes walking around inside would be awkward. In the West, hotel patrons wouldn’t even think about taking off their shoes until they get in their hotel room.

Japanese have a very clear line to isolate “inside” (shoes off) and “outside” (shoes on):

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http://onemileatatime.img.boardingarea.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/IMG_4602.jpg

shoes-in-front-of-Japanese-temple

(Do not enter a Japanese temple or home with the shoes on)

http://www.thetravelmagazine.net/wp-content/uploads/shoes-in-front-of-Japanese-temple.jpg

 

City Aesthetics

Based on this Japanese culture, people are usually indifferent about the beautification of public space. As we can see from pictures, most of Japanese streets tend to look uniform without much decoration or landscaping. Moreover, sometimes they built a wall between the house and street. In contrast, Western cities usually pay careful attention to urban design and take pride in making their communities aesthetically pleasing.

In Japan:

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https://i.pinimg.com/originals/61/72/06/617206e17c5678aab94c7264c964e356.jpg

Japan streetscape1http://i0.wp.com/japanese-museum.com/main/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/hiroshima_2.jpg?fit=900%2C506

In Europe:colorful_apartment_building_in_burano_venice_italy_0https://www.zicasso.com/sites/default/files/styles/original_scaled_down/public/photos/tour/colorful_apartment_building_in_burano_venice_italy_0.jpg

piazza-san-marco-long

http://www.reidsitaly.com/images/veneto/venice/sights/piazza-san-marco-long.jpg

After all, it is hard to see decorations like status or fountains in Japan, whereas Europe already have their catholic and Rococo style, full of decoration on buildings. I think this is a great example of the cities built based on “internal” and “external” culture.  Every design in the city somehow got influenced by the culture, that’s why we should pay attention to the way a city design/plan when we travel, you will find interesting stories.

 

Mei Fang, is an urban planner with a strong passion in urban and landscape design, she also enjoy looking for the variety culture inside of the city.

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5 Ways to Help Traffic

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Source: CNN

In the midst of Tropical Storm Harvey, our hearts and thoughts go out to the families whom are affected by this storm. Due to its flat topography, Houston is well-known for its susceptibility for flooding. Many people woke up to find they were trapped inside their flooded homes and waited to be rescued. We wish the affected families the best of luck in their journey to recovery.
 
I have never been to Houston, but I have heard many stories about Houston’s traffic and planning. In this blog, I will share what I have learned from my perspective and my extended knowledge of transportation.
 
Houston is known for its sprawl. People tend to complain about the traffic because they drive to most of their destinations. The traffic is usually at a standstill.
 
Here is a video talking about the Houston’s freeway system.
 


 
American Highway Users Alliance published a statement that the Katy freeway in Houston was the second most congested road in America. Drivers spend a combined 25.4 million hours every year sitting in traffic on that road (which is 36 lifetimes worth). That is why the government decided to spend $2.8 billion to expand the road to 28 lanes, making it the widest highway in the world. Many people thought that this extra capacity would surely solve the problem. However, between 2011 and 2014, travel time on Katy freeway went up 55% (Meaning that driving between downtown Houston and Katyland, a 28-minute drive without traffic, takes an average of 64 mins during afternoon rush hour.)

Katy freeway (I-10) in Houston, Tx

Sounds unbelievable, right?

The video explains that the road expanding solution violated the fundamental law of roads: MORE LANES=MORE TRAFFIC. When the road got extended, more people used it, causing it to reach capacity again.

Here are some solutions for traffic as discussed in the video:
 

  1. Take public transit

This is always the long-term way to solve traffic. Taking the bus and light rail can definitely reduce the daily amount of traffic and is also environmentally friendly.

METRO_Light_Rail3

Source: http://www.abrahamwatkins.com/blog/images/METRO_Light_Rail3.jpg

  1. Ramp meters

Meters on entrance and exit ramps can control the amount flow of traffic entering the highway. It slows down the number of cars merging onto the highway, ensuring traffic stays at its most efficient speed.

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Source: https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop14020/sec1.htm

  1. Tolls

Tolls are a direct way to reduce traffic. In New York, which has high roadway tolls, people often prefer to take the train or subway into Manhattan instead of driving.

These fees can increase the overall cost of driving to a level where some people will decide the benefits of driving are not high enough and will choose alternative means of transportation.2005-03-13_15-53-32

  1. Roundabouts

Roundabouts decrease some of the worst type of collisions and still carry the same amount of traffic, according to study. Traffic tends to be smooth and consistent, albeit having a slower flow.

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     Source: https://i.ytimg.com/vi/XcK8sjzTlWI/maxresdefault.jpg

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Source: https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Safety/roundabouts/benefits.htm

  1. Diverging diamond interchange (DDI), also called double crossover diamond interchange (DCD)
  • Fewer conflict points (14 for DDI, 26 for conventional)
  • Conflict points spread out throughout interchange
  • Better sight distance at turns
  • Virtually no driver confusion (FHWA study and new DDI observations in Springfield, MO)
  • Traffic calming features when desired
  • Wrong way entry to ramps extremely difficult
  • Shorter pedestrian crossings

chapt1pic4Screen Shot 2017-08-28 at 4.15.25 PM

Source: http://www.divergingdiamond.com/trafficmovements.html

In the DC metro area, commuters also face heavy traffic during the rush hours, especially in downtown DC, I-66, I-495, and I-395. After all, traffic is an issue for every major metropolitan area. We all contribute to solve this problem. I highly recommend everyone to take public transit like Metrorail, Metrobus, or the Capital Bikeshare.

 

Mei Fang, is an urban planner with a strong passion in urban and landscape design, she also enjoy looking for the variety culture inside of the city.





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