Posts Tagged ‘Infrastructure’

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The Future of Transportation – Part I

As an alumnus and a member of the Advisory Council for the Civil Engineering Department, I was asked to lead a workshop during the summer CATALYST Academy at Cornell University. The purpose of the summer program was to bring high school students from underrepresented backgrounds to Cornell to spark an interest in engineering and the university. My workshop entitled “Transportation: How you can be part of the Future” included a 30-minute presentation and a 60-minute group activity. This blog post is a summary of the presentation portion of my workshop.

Transportation has always been about moving goods and/or people from Point A to Point B. Whether we are discussing the ancient empires with routes to trade goods, the slave trade that brought Africans to the Americas, or the latest flight deals that allow for global travel, transportation is an essential part of the economy. Today, the transportation industry is at an interesting crossroads of ‘we’ve been doing it this way for decades’ and ‘new technologies require new thinking’.

“We’ve Been Doing it this Way for Decades”

For the last six decades, the basic formula for transportation planning has changed very little. We examine existing conditions, forecast changes over a 20 to 30-year period, and then predict how people will move and what mode they will use. While this model gives us a general idea of movement at the regional level, it can be problematic when used at other scales.

Among the challenges with the current model, I discussed two with the students. One challenge of the model is that it assumes people use one mode to take a trip between point A and point B. Where in reality people, particularly in highly urbanized areas, use multiple modes. For example, if a person takes public transportation, they still have walk trips from home to the bus stop and the bus stop to work. The other challenge is emerging megaregions, where people are able to commute between regions on a daily basis. For example, there are people who commute to DC daily from Philadelphia, which is part of a different metropolitan area. However, the travel models are still regional in that DC and and Philadelphia have separate travel demand models.

‘New Technologies’

With the advancement of technologies, the transportation industry is facing new challenges and opportunities. I discussed:

  • Changes in Communication: With the popularity of smart phones and tablets, people are able to have face-to-face communication with the click of an application. Where long distance relationships required a plane ticket or long-distance phone plan 10 years ago, now we are able to communicate globally via Wireless internet.
  • Shared Economy: For the transportation industry, the shared economy includes sharing a motor vehicle, bicycle, or car ride. Programs like Car2Go, ZipCar, and Getaround allow for people to forego car ownership but still have access to a car when they need one. Bikeshare programs are a gateway to increasing the number of people biking as well as fill a short to medium transportation need. Rideshare programs such as Uber and Lyft provide access to people who do now own a vehicle and have been shown to increase transit usage.
  • Autonomous Vehicles (AVs): When I was young, I was told we would live like The Jetsons by the time I was an adult. I also remember watching Maximum Overdrive and being freaked out at the thought of a semi-truck chasing people around. There has been (and still is) skepticism around AVs. However, fully autonomous passenger and freight vehicles are being tested on our roadways. There are still public policy questions around safety, cyber security, and infrastructure needs.
  • Delivery Bots: I showed the students a video of a delivery bot in DC. The technology is being deployed in communities as both airborne drones and little motorized food delivery vehicles. If and when this technology scales up, what will be the future impact on how people and goods travel?
  • MagLev: I shared with the students that there are ongoing discussion of using MagLev trains as an alternative mode of travel between cities. For example, the Baltimore-Washington Rapid Rail is examining a maglev train that would travel from Baltimore to Washington DC in 15 minutes.
  • Space: There are some big thinkers, such as Richard Branson, that envision a world with commercial space travel.

‘New Thinking’

With the emergence of new technologies, humanity will face unique challenges and the current generation of teenagers are equipped to provide the solutions to those challenges. Some of the things I shared with the students:

  • They are the first generation where access to technology and high-speed (and pocket sized) computers are the norm. I told them they do not understand the struggles of having to use a pencil to rewind a cassette tape. The first Apple iPod was release when many of them were born. The do not know a world without technology.
  • They are growing up in an inclusive society. Although the U.S. still has its share of –isms (racism, classism, sexism, etc), this group has grown up in a world that has been more socially inclusive than any other in U.S. history.
  • They have access to instantaneous and unlimited information. When I was in high school, research required flipping through the pages of an encyclopedia Britannica or going through card catalogue to find a book. The current generation has the ability to pull information on any topic at any moment. With the click of a button, Siri can answer question on music, history, biology, physics, etc.

The purpose of the presentation was to get the young people thinking about the current challenges and opportunities in transportation. After a brief question and answer, I broke the students into teams and assigned them an activity to address many of the issues I discussed in my presentation. In the next post, I will describe the group activity in detail and the ideas generated by the students.

Veronica O. Davis, PE is a transportation guru who uses her knowledge to spark progressive social change. As Co-owner and Principal of Nspiregreen, she is also responsible for the management of the major urban planning functions such as transportation planning, policy development, master planning, sustainability analysis, and long range planning. In July 2012, Veronica was recognized as a Champion of Change by the White House for her professional accomplishments and community advocacy, which includes co-founding Black Women Bike.

13th Street NW at Franklin Park, showing people waiting for food trucks in the shade of the trees.

Food Truck Fiasco

 

I love a food truck. I think it’s also fair to say that the DC region as a whole loves its food trucks. It’s like street food, but more trustworthy because it comes from a branded, often punny, metal box truck. With popularity of food trucks and fight for curbside uses (e.g parking) in prime locations, many jurisdictions have created special regulations and programs to manage how food trucks use the curbside parking. But as I was joining my fellow Nspiregreeners to flock to the DC Empanada truck (best empanadas in the District, btw) at Franklin Park, I noticed a few externalities of how these food trucks operate.

  1. Compacted Soils– This is my biggest concern. Food trucks often set up shop along a Franklin Park as shown in the photo below. People wait on the grass in the shaded areas that are within earshot of the trucks. In addition, people take short cuts through the grass to get to their favorite truck. With all of this foot traffic, the soils in this park near the food trucks is compacted. When soil gets to this extent of compaction, the shallow roots of grasses become starved for growing space, nutrients, and water and begin to die off. The scuffing of feet on the compacted soil loosens the top layers and soil sediment then blows in the wind or is washed into stormwater runoff. During rain, the rest of the compacted soil acts almost similar to impervious surfaces, where runoff can sheet across without being absorbed. If the storm is long enough and it is absorbed, the area becomes a mud pit and a potential tripping hazard when it dries again. 

13th Street NW looking north from Franklin Park. Photo shows People in business attire waiting for food from food trucks. The soil under their feet in the park is compacted and grass is not growing at the edge of the park.

Solution: Temporary waiting areas, with lighter touch on the ground or those that aerate the soil while people use them. These can be formalized waiting areas sectioned off by using ropes or guideposts.

  1. Crowded sidewalks or inadequate public space– Many times when trucks set up along streets there is inadequate sidewalk or public space to accommodate the lines of people and crowds waiting for their food. People that need to use the sidewalk to pass either must cross or zigzag their way through the crowds and lines. This impedes pedestrian flow and accessibility.

Solution: Again, temporary waiting areas sectioned off by using ropes or guideposts can help guide people to wait in designated areas and leave the sidewalks clearer.

  1. Noise pollution – Some food trucks run nice and quiet, but others with on-board generators sound like a continuous jack hammer that resonates across blocks. Even the crowds of people, at peak times, can produce noise pollution in otherwise low volume areas. These areas can then run up against opposition because they become a nuisance to residents and other businesses.

Solution: The potential solution to this could be one of two things- require trucks to operate below a certain decibel reading and/or provide temporary noise screening walls or vegetation against the trucks.

  1. Lack of Shade – Unless it’s the first warm day after a stretch of winter weather, most people want to stand in the shade when waiting for their food. The trucks themselves only shade the person ordering outside. If the trucks are popular, the lines can stretch into public space or down a sidewalk.

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Solution: The solution could be pretty easy- temporary umbrellas or shade structures or enhance the environment. If umbrellas or shade structures, they could be branded for the BID, neighborhood, or supplied by the truck itself. Increasing tree canopies would help offset any air quality issues and improve stormwater quality if designed to capture runoff.

  1. Lack of Seating – In many cases, the public spaces do not have adequate seating to accommodate those that wish to stay outside with coworkers or friends on nice days instead of heading indoors for a SDL (sad desk lunch). Often times seating is limited or unavailable in these cases, forcing customers to sit on the grass (not ideal) or go back to the office and fall prey to the better tasting SDL.

Solution: The solution is pretty obvious, temporary seating, but these could be done as more exciting installations of placemaking and usable art. The Seattle Design Festival hosts a design in public events that encourage people to interact with art and installations.

Seattle Design Festival Block Party 2016

Photo Credit: Trevor Dykstra

As with any project or impact to our transportation system or land use, thoughtful planning can avoid the impacts on the environment and public space. With a little art added into the mix the result can be a unique and attractive space that draws people and encourages sustained activity.

 

Christine E. Mayeur, AICP is an urban planner with a unique set of skills and hobbies, interested in all things creative and challenging. Christine uses her history of working with communities through grassroots organizations along with her planning skills to help plan transportation systems and environmental solutions that meet the needs of all users.

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A Little LEED Strategy for buying home

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Recently I’ve been studying for LEED Green Associate exam and the word “density” has been hanging in my mind, this is because “density” this word throughout the whole book. The very beginning of a project is ‘Location and Transportation’. This is a new category that was added to the LEED rating system. This category put more emphasis and attention on reducing one of the main contributors to global warming: transportation. It is clarified through the ideas of reducing the cost, pollution, and depletion of resources related to the daily transportation of people and goods to and from a destination. After reading Veronica’s post last week, it got me thinking about sustainability and how it applies to our daily lives, especially in choosing where to live. I think that LEED principles can be applied to a housing search.

The book divided Location and Transportation (LT) category into 4 points: Location, Transportation, Site Development, and Health and Livability. These points are often similar to what people consider when looking for a house or place to live.

Location:

Locate within a LEED-Certified Neighborhood Development

A LEED-Certified Neighborhood usually is a sustainable site. This is because the neighborhood has to meet the qualification of LEED requirements such as walkability, green infrastructure, floodplain avoidance, etc.

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Located within proximity of surrounding density and diverse uses

“Density” is an important word in LEED. The reason behind this is to cut the distance shorter for people to travel to work or visit the building. Also, if the building is within walking distance (0.5 mile), people will not need to drive. Both ways would cut down on greenhouse gas emissions and will help reduce global warming.

 

Transportation:

Limit available parking

LEED-Certified buildings usually have limited parking, because this can encourage people to carpool or use alternative ways of travel.

DCLab6401A LEED Platinum Science Building in DC

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Develop in areas that have multimodal transportation access

This could also inspire people to take public transportation modes like bus or rail.

A Washington Metro train makes its way toward Union Station, Sunday, March 25, 2001. It's not nearly as old as some of the models housed in the Museum of American History, but Washington's subway system is about to turn 25. Amid the celebration, however, is concern about equipment and funds for a system that ranks only behind New York City's in ridership.(AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

A Washington Metro train makes its way toward Union Station, Sunday, March 25, 2001. It’s not nearly as old as some of the models housed in the Museum of American History, but Washington’s subway system is about to turn 25. Amid the celebration, however, is concern about equipment and funds for a system that ranks only behind New York City’s in ridership.(AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

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http://urbanbohemian.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/df08152005e.jpg

 

Site development 

(This point is more for a someone building a home and their location selection)

Avoid developing on environmentally-sensitive land

This is for the sustainability environment. Considering the local bioregion, watershed, and community can help a project team minimize the sustainable features of the surrounding environment and to climate change. In LT category, sensitive land defines as farmland, floodplains, threatened or endangered species habitats, water bodies, and wetlands.

Locate the project on a pre-developed site

It would be an ideal area, because of the preexisting infrastructure is already in place. Pre-developed location can reduce the cost of installing new roads, sewer, and power lines.

pre_developedhttps://media.licdn.com/mpr/mpr/AAEAAQAAAAAAAAdAAAAAJDM2ZDA2NDYwLTFhN2UtNDExZi1hOTdkLTUyNTQ3MjYwMGU4NA.jpg

Locate the project on a high-priority site such as a brownfield

A brownfield is a property that has the presence of hazardous materials, pollutants, or contaminant that may affect by redevelopment if the property. Remediation and development of brownfield can avoid land waste and reduce urban sprawl.

 

Health and livability

Develop in areas that promote walkability

Sidewalk and shelter for pedestrians should be provided, these make it easy for people to walk to and from the building for basic needs and routine functions.

Provide bicycle storage facilities, shower room, and bicycle networks in close proximity to diverse uses

This encourages the use of non-motorized modes of transportation.

Capital Bikeshare rental station near McPherson Square Metro (WMATA) station, downtown Washington, D.C.

Capital Bikeshare rental station near McPherson Square Metro (WMATA) station, downtown Washington, D.C.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Capital_Bikeshare_DC_2010_10_544.JPG

Provide a bicycle maintenance program for employees or bicycle route assistance for employees and customers.

This could encourage people to ride bikes, walk, or run errands during the day. This can also decrease greenhouse emission caused by vehicle use and increase the health and welfare if building occupants.

 

Other factors recommended that contribute to this field that speak to “density” are the following:

Provide pedestrian amenities

Promote connectivity

Create a diverse community

Promote access to sustainable food

Provide access to grocery stores.

 

All of these factors would reduce a number of people who use their cars in their everyday lives. This will help contributing less greenhouse emission, at the same time, provide human more options to work out and revitalized neighborhoods.

Hope these points can help you, and Veronica, with your home location selection.

 

Mei Fang, is an urban planner with a strong passion in urban and landscape design, she also enjoy looking for the variety culture inside of the city.





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